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Glossary – Essential Terms and Technical Abbreviations (for the banking, finance and economics EU/INTL)

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This abbreviation and acronyms list explains terms frequently used in the area of documents related to the Banking Union. They are specifically used in relation to the Single Supervisory Mechanism, the Single Resolution Mechanism) and the application of the Capital Requirements Directive and the Capital Requirements Regulation. Terms were provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee of the European Commission.

A-E glossary

ABCP asset-backed commercial paper

ABS asset-backed security

ABSPP Asset-Backed Securities Purchase Programme

ACH automated clearing house

AFS available for sale

ALM asset/liability management

AMLD Anti-Money Laundering Directive 2015/849

AnaCredit European Analytical Credit Dataset (ECB proposal)

ANFA agreement (between ECB and NCBs) on net-financial assets

AQR Asset Quality Review

ART alternative risk transfer

ASF available stable funding

AT Austria

AT1 Additional Tier 1 [capital instrument]

ATM automated teller machines (US term)

AVC asset value correlation

Basel III Third Basel Accord

B2B Business to Business

BCBS Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, https://www.bis.org/bcbs/

BCR basic capital requirement (insurance)

BE Belgium

BEPS Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (OECD project)

BG Bulgaria

BIC bank identifier code

BIS Bank for International Settlements (located in Basel)

BoP balance of payments

bps basis points: one one-hundredth (0.01) of a percentage point; example: five percent would be equal to 500 basis points (yield differences are often quoted in basis points)

BR Brazil

BRRD Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive 2014/59/EU

BSI balance sheet item

BU Banking Union (see graphic overview)

CA – comprehensive assessment (= AQR + Stress test);

– Competent authority;

– Capital conservation buffer (mandatory)

CAR Capital Adequacy Ratio (see also CRAR)

CbCR or CBCR Country-by-Country Reporting

CBPP covered bond purchase programme

CBR combined buffer requirement

CBSG Cross-Border Stability Group (SSM context)

CCAR comprehensive capital analysis and review (U.S. Federal Reserve)

CCBM correspondent central banking model

CCBM2 collateral central bank management (ECB)

CCF credit conversion factor

CCP central counterparty

CCR counterparty credit risk

CCyB countercyclical capital buffer

CD Certificate of Deposit

CDD customer due diligence (U.S.)

CDO collateralised debt oblication

CDR Constant Default Rate

CDS credit default swap

CEBS Committee of European Banking Supervisors (predecessor of EBA)

CEIOPS Committee of European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Supervisors (predecessor of EIOPA)

CEM current exposure method

CESAME Clearing and Settlement Advisory and Monitoring Expert Group (see CESAME Report 11/2008)

CET 1 Common Equity Tier 1

CFC controlled foreign corporation

CFR credit file review

CFTC Commodity Futures Trading Commission (U.S.), www.cftc.gov

CGSF Committee on the Global Financial System (hosted by the BIS,


CH Switzerland

CIB corporate and investment banks

CL Chile

CLOB central limit order book

CLS Continuous Linked Settlement

CMBS commercial mortgage backed securities (U.S.)

CMG Crisis Management Group (SSM context)

CMU Capital Markets Union

CNAV constant net asset value (MMF context)

CoCo Contingent Convertible Bond

COMP European Commission Directorate General Competition,


COREP Common Reporting (standardised EBA reporting framework for the

Capital Requirements Directive reporting covering credit risk,

market risk, operational risk, own funds and capital adequacy


CP – Commercial Paper;

CP – Consultation Paper

CPMI Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures (successor of

CPSS as of September 2014, hosted by BIS, Basel)

CPMO Central Project Management Office

CPR Constant Prepayment Rate

CPSS Committee on Payments and Settlement Systems (predecessor of


CRAR Capital to Risk (Weighted) Assets Ratio (see also CAR)

CRD IV Capital Requirements Directive 2013/36/EU

CRE commercial real estate

CRM credit risk mitigation

CRR Capital Requirements Regulation (EU) No 575/2013

cRWA credit risk-weighted assets (see RWA)

CSA Credit Support Annex

CSD credit default swap

CSE covered swap entity (U.S. CFTC)

CSM clearing and settlement mechanism

CSPP Corporate Sector Purchase Programme (of the ECB)

CT1 Core Tier 1

CUSIP Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures (U.S. CUSIP numbers identify U.S. securities for trade and settlement; see ISIN for EU purposes)

CVA credit valuation adjustment

CY Cyprus

CZ Czech Republic

DB defined benefit (scheme where the employer promises a specific level of benefit defined by a formula based on the employee’s earnings and/or years of service)

DC defined contribution (scheme where the benefits depend on the contributions paid to which the employer committed)

DE Germany

DG Directorate General

DGI data gaps initiative (G20, FSB)

DGS(D) Deposit Guarantee Schemes (Directive 2014/49/EU)

DIF deposit insurance fund (see EDIS)

DIV data integrity validation

DK Denmark

DLT Distributed Ledger Technology (virtual currencies, block chain)

DP Discussion Paper

DRE Deposit Rate Elasticity

D-SIB domestic systemically important bank

DTAs Deferred Tax Assets (DTAs are the deferred tax assets that are deducted in full under Basel III, i.e. excluded are DTAs that are related to temporary differences, which are only deducted when they exceed a threshold)

DTLs Deferred Tax Liabilities

DVA debit valuation adjustment

DvD delivers-versus-delivery

DvP delivery-versus-payment

EAA euro area accounts

EAD exposure at default

EBA European Banking Authority

EBITDA earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization

EBPP electronic bill presentment and payment (services which enable the electronic transmission, browsing and payment of invoices)

ECAI External Credit Assessment Institution (EU synonym for rating agency)

EC – European Community/Communities;

– (often also used for) European Commission

ECB European Central Bank

ECN – electronic communication network (electronic trading system);

– European Competition Network

EDPS European Data Protection Supervisor

EDI electronic data interchange

EDIS European Deposit Insurance Scheme (proposal COM/2015/586)

EE Estonia

EEA European Economic Area

EEC European Economic Community (established 1957 by the Treaty of Rome)

EFSF European Financial Stability Facility

EFSI Euorpean Fund for Strategic Investments

EFTPOS electronic funds transfer at point-of-sale (terminal)

EGBPI (Commission) Expert Group on Banking, Payments and Insurance

EIOPA European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority

EL expected loss

ELMI electronic money institution (credit institution governed by a simplified regulatory regime because their activity is limited to the issuance of electronic money and services closely related thereto)

EM Emerging Markets

EMIR European Market Infrastructures Regulation (Regulation No 648/2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories)

EMU Economic and Monetary Union

EMV Europay, MasterCard and Visa (consortium EMVCo)

EONIA Euro Overnight Index Average (calculated by the ECB)

EPC European Payments Council

EPE expected positive exposure

ERF – European Resolution Fund (usually ‘Single Resolution Fund’,

see SRF);

– European Reporting Framework (ECB)

ERM enterprise risk management (insurance)

ES Spain

ESAs European Supervisory Authorities (EBA, EIOPA, ESMA)

ESCB European System of Central Banks (consists of the ECB and the

national central banks of all Member States)

ESFS European System of Financial Supervision

ESM European Stability Mechanism

ESMA European Securities and Markets Authority

ESRB European Systemic Risk Board

ETD Exchange-Traded Derivative

ETF Exchange-Traded Fund

EU European Union

EUREPO repo market reference rate for the euro

EURIBOR Euro Interbank Offered Rate


FAQ frequently asked question

FASB (U.S.) Financial Accounting Standards Board

FATCA (U.S.) Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

FI Finland

FinCEN Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the U.S. Treasury Department

FINREP (supervisory) financial reporting (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 680/2014; see also EBA website)

FinTech technology-enabled financial innovation

FIRB foundation internal ratings-based approach (see IRBA)

FISMA European Commission Directorate General Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union

FMI Financial Market Infrastructure (see CPMI-IOSCO Principles for FMIs – PFMI)

FOLTF Failing or Likely To Fail (according to BRRD, resolution should be initiated when the competent authorities determine that a bank is failing or is likely to fail and resolution measures would prevent such failure within a reasonable timeframe. A bank will be considered to be failing or likely to fail when it is a) in breach of the requirements for continuing authorisation, b) its asset  are less than its liabilities, c) it is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, or d) it requires extraordinary public support, see EBA Guidelines on the interpretation of the different circumstances when an institution shall be considered as failing or likely to fail under Article 32 (6) of Directive 2014/59/EU, EBA/GL/2015/07, 6.8.2015) free-of-payment

FR France

FRTB Fundamental Review of the Trading Book (BCBS 2016)

FSAP – (Commission) Financial Services Action Plan (28.10.1998);

– (IMF) Financial Sector Assessment Program

FSB Financial Stability Board

FTS fund transfer system

FV fair value

FVA Funding Valuation Adjustments

FVO fair value option

FVOCI fair value through OCI (other comprehensive income)

FVTPL fair value through P&L (profit and loss)

FX Foreign Exchange

G 20 Group of Twenty

GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (the accounting standards applicable in a given jurisdiction)

GDP Gross Domestic Product (value of all goods and services produced by an economy over a specified period; measure of economic activity)

GHOS Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision (the oversight body of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision)

Going concern

Gone concern

GLRA Group-Level Resolution Authority (e.g. SRB)

GR Greece

GSF group-wide supervision Framework (insurance)

G-SIB Global Systemically Important Bank

G-SIFI Global Systemically Important Financial Institution

G-SII – Global Systemically Important Institution;

– Global Systemically Important Insurance/Insurers

haircut – a risk control measure applied to underlying assets whereby the value of those underlying assets is calculated as the market value of the assets reduced by a certain percentage (the ‘haircut’); they are applied by a collateral taker in order to protect itself from losses resulting from declines in the market value of a security in the event that it needs to liquidate that collateral

HBS holistic balance sheet

HFT held-for-trading

HICP Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (calculated by Eurostat)

HLA Higher loss absorbency (capital; Solvency II context)

HQLA high-quality liquid assets

HU Hungary

HR Croatia

HR Human Resources

HTM held to maturity

Hybrid Capital

IA Impact Assessment

IAS International Accounting Standards

IASB International Accounting Standards Board

IBAN international bank account number

IBN[E]R incurred but not [enough] reported (provision for claims incurred but not reported by the balance-sheet date)

ICA Internal Capital Adequacy (Ratio)

ICAAP Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process

ICPFs insurance corporations and pension funds

ICS Insurance Capital Standard

ICSD International central securities depository (in the EU: Euroclear

Bank (BE) and Clearstrem Banking (LU))

IDB Interdealer broker

IE Ireland

IFRIC International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee

IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards

IFTS interbank funds transfer system

ILAAP Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process

IMF International Monetary Fund

IMM Internal model method (see IRBA)

IOSCO International Organization of Securities Commissions

IRBA Internal Ratings-Based Approach

IRC incremental risk charge

IRT Internal Resolution team (e.g. SRB and NRA)

IRS – interest rate swaps (EMIR term);

– Internal Revenue Service (U.S. tax agency);

ISA – International Standards on Auditing;

– Individual Segregated Accounts (see Article 39(3) EMIR)

ISDA International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc.

ISIN International Securities Identification Number

IT – Italy

IT – Information Technology

ITS Implementing Technical Standard (Article 291 TFEU)

J-I Glossary

JP Japan

JPT Joint Project Team (European Comission)

JST* Joint Supervisory Team (in the context of SSM) junior debt

KID key information document

KIID key investor information document

KPI key performance indicator

KYC know your customer (principle)

LAC loss-absorbing capacity

L/C letter of credit

LCR Liquidity Coverage Ratio

LDI Liability-driven investment (pairing cashflow-matching assets with

forecast liability streams in the occupational pension sector)

LEI legal entity identifier (global standard consiting of a unique 20-character code that identifies distinct legal entities which engage in financial transactions; needed for reporting purposes, the LEI is designed to be non-proprietary data that is freely accessible to all)

LR Leverage Ratio

LGD loss given default;

– downturn LGD

LGI loss given impairment

LGL loss given loss

LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate

LSI less significant institutions (in view of stress tests/AQR)

LSOC Legally Segregated but Operationally Comingled (accounts)

LTRO long-term refinancing operation

LT Lithuania

LTG long term guarantee (measures, insurance term)

LU Luxembourg

LV Latvia

LVNAV low volatility net asset value (e.g. investment fund context)

MBF market-based finance (U.K./FCA term for shadow banking)

MCD Mortgage Credit Directive 2014/17/EU

MCR minimum capital requirement

MDA maximum distributable amount [dividend]

MDB multilateral development bank

MDP multi-dealer platform (opposite SDP)

ME Montenegro, also MNE

MFI monetary financial institution

MiFID 2 Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2014/65/EU

MIR Euro area and national MFI interest rate

MIS management information system

MMF money market fund

MOCE margin over current estimate

MoU Memorandum of Understanding

MPE multiple point of entry (liquidation procedure, opposite SPE)

MPOR Margin Period of Risk

MPS Macro prudential Policy and Surveillance (in insurance, IAIS framework)

MREL minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities

MRO main refinancing operations

MSC merchant service charge

MSRs mortgage servicing rights

MT Malta

MTF multilateral trading facility (MiFID II)

MtM mark-to-market

MX Mexico

NAV Net asset value (e.g. investment fund context)

NCA national competent authority

NCB national central bank

NCWO no creditor worse off (principle/assessment)

NDB National development bank

NEM National execution measures (NEM data base in the area of mortgage credit, see MCD)

NFCs non-financing operations

nGAAP National Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

NL Netherlands

NO Norway

NODs National options and discretions (see also OND)

NPE non-performing exposure

NPL non-performing loan

NRA national resolution authority

NSFR Net Stable Funding Ratio (as of May 2016: U.S. interagency

proposed rule implementing quantitative liquidity requirements aiming at being consistent with the liquidity standard adopted by the Basel Committee in October 2014. It includes a net stable funding ratio for U.S. banking organisation with USD 250 billion or more in total consolidated assets or USD 10 billion or more in total on-balance sheet foreign exposure. Regulators may develop a separate version that would apply to foreign banking organisation. Under the NSFR requirement, a covered banking organisation would calculate a weighted measure of its available stable funding amount (ASF amount) over a one-year time horizon. The proposed rule would require a covered banking organization’s ASF amount to be greater than or equal to a minimum level of stable funding calculated based on the liquidity characteristics of its assets, derivative exposures, and commitments over the same one year time horizon.)

NTNI Non-traditional non-insurance (activities)

OBS off-balance sheet

OCI other comprehensive income

OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

OIS overnight index swap

OND options and national discretions (or ‘O&D’, see also NOD)

OJ Official Journal of the European Union

OMT outright monetary transaction

OSA Omnibus Segregated Account (see Article 39(2) EMIR)

O-SII Other Systemically Important Institution

OTC over-the-counter (derivative/trading)

OTF organized trading facility (MiFID II)

P&L Profit and Loss (Statement) pari passu

PBO projected benefit obligations

PD Probability of Default (may refer to either the point-in-time or regulatory parameter);

– Through-the-cycle PD

PE – Parlement européen

– Performing

PE-ACH Pan-European automated clearing house

PFMIs CPMI-IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures (2012)

PI Probability of impairment

Pillar 1, 2, 3

PIN personal identification number

PL Poland

PORCs producer owned reinsurance companies

POS point-of-sale (transaction)

PP&A Processes, policies and accounting review

Prudential filters

PSE Public sector entity

PSP payment service provider (SEPA context)

PSPP Public Sector Purchasing Progamme (Eurosystem)

PT Portugal

PV Present value

PvP payment-versus-payment

QA quality assurance

QAA quality assurance adjustment

QIS Qualitative Impact Study

RA resolution authority

RAG Red, Amber, Green

RAS Risk Assessment System

RBA ratings-based approach (see IRBA)

RC – risk control;

– resolution college

RCAP regulatory consistency assessment program (adopted by the BCBS in 2012, consisting of work streams monitoring the timely adoption of Basel III standards and assessing the consistency and completeness of the adopted standards. The RCAP currently focuses on risk-based capital standards, LCR and the SIBs framework. In 2017 also Basel III standards on NSFR and leverage ratio shall be covered. To facilitate implementation, BCBS has published in 2016 a Handbook for Jurisdictional Assessments, which updates the procedures and process for conducting assessments under the RCAP).

Repo repurchase agreement

RFQ request for quote

RL Risk Level

RO Romania

ROA Return on Assets

ROI Return on Investments

RRE Residential real estate

RSF Required Stable Funding

RS Serbia

RTGS real-time gross settlement (system)

RTS Regulatory Technical Standard (delegated act, Article 290 TFEU)

RU Russia

RWA Risk-weighted Assets

S-Z glossary

SA Standardized Approach (see also IRBA)

SBS security-based swap (U.S. SEC reporting term)

SCCL single-counterparty credit limits (large exposure rule by U.S.Federal Reserve Board, March 2016)

SCR Solvency Capital Requirement (under Solvency II Directive)

SCWP supervisory convergence work programme (ESMA)

SDD SEPA Direct Debit

SDP Single-dealer platform (opposite MDP)

SDW (ECB) Statistical Data Warehouse

SE Sweden

SEC – securities issues statistics (ECB);

– Securities and Exchange Commission (U.S.)

– Senior debt

SEP – Supervisory Examination Programme

– Supervisory Evaluation Plans (annual SSSM context)

SEPA Single European Payments Area

SERP Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process

SFT securities financing transaction

SI – Slovenia;

– Systematic internaliser (MiFID II)

SIV structured investment vehicle

SK Slovakia

SME small and medium-sized enterprise

SMP Securities Markets Programme

SNLP Stressed Net Liquidity Position

SORP (U.K.) statement of recommended practice

SPD Single Programming Document (of EBA, EIOPA and ESMA)

SPE – Supervisory Pilot Exercise (by the ECB, e.g. SPE4);

– Single point of entry (insolvency procedure, opposite MPE)

SPPI Solely Payments of Principal & Interest

SPV Special Purpose Vehicle

SRB Single Resolution Board (see SRMR)

SREP Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SSM context)

SRM Single Resolution Mechanism

SRMR Single Resolution Mechanism Regulation (EU) No 806/2014

SSM Single Supervisory Mechanism

SSP single shared platform

SSR Short Selling Regulation (EU) No 236/2012

SSS securities settlement system

ST Stress test

STE short-term exercise (reports; on 6.2.2015 the ECB launched the

STE to provide additional data to complement ITS data for the

SREP; STE supersedes the last SPE4)

STEP short-term European Paper

STP straight-through processing

STR suspicious transaction reporting (anti-money laundering)

STS simple, transparent and standardized (proposed framework for certain types of financial instruments, e.g. ABS) subordinated (debt)

T 1, 2, 3 Tier 1, 2, 3 [capital/instruments]

– Tier 1 common capital ratio

– Tier 1 total capital ratio

T2S TARGET2-Securities (see ECB’s Glossary of Terms related to Payment, Clearing and Settlement Systems)

TARGET Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross settlement Express Transfer system (the current system is TARGET2)

TLAC Total Loss-Absorbing Capacity (FSB’s requirement for global systemically important banks (G-SIBs)

TR – Turkey;

– trade repository

TRN transaction reference number

UCITS undertakings for the collective investment of transferable securities (UCITS IV Directive 2014/91/EU)

UK United Kindom

UPI unique product identifier

UTI unique transaction identifier

US United States (of America), also USA

VAR Value-at-risk

VC venture capital

VNAV variable net asset value (MMF fund)

VRDN Variable Rate Demand Note

YRT yearly renewable term

Source: EC

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